Igbo in Nigeria ; Marathi in MaharashtraIndia Promoted language — lacks official status on a national or regional level but is promoted and sometimes used by public authorities for specific functions e. The de facto national language of the United States is English.
We conduct original research in the field, and facilitate collaboration nationally and internationally among scholars and other stakeholders. However, increasing immigration has resulted in large and viable communities in the United States whose native language is not English.
After several years of debate and disagreement, in Peruvian linguists proposed the Pan-Quechua alphabet as an accurate representation of the language, and this was adopted in intercultural bilingual education programs and textbooks.
Hindi in India; Swahili language in East Africa  International — An international language functions as a medium of communication across national boundaries e.
These stages are sometimes referred to as "status planning" and include: A coherent and informed legislative response Language planning the social and political questions raised by the changing composition of the population is needed so that legislators and educators can make informed choices about language policy in areas such as educational policy and access to basic services.
Issues of linguistic purism often play a significant role in lexical expansion, but technical vocabulary can be effective within a language, regardless of whether it comes from the language's own process of word formation or from extensive borrowing from another language.
Katakana is designed for a language with a basic CV syllable structurebut Ainu contains many CVC syllables that cannot easily be adapted to this syllabary.
Rather, standardization was required in order to create a uniform writing system to provide education to Quechua speakers in their native language.
Although written language is often viewed as secondary to spoken language, the vocabularygrammatical structures and phonological structures of a language often adopt characteristics in the written form that are distinct from the spoken variety.
However, other Peruvian linguists argued that a three-vowel system was more faithful to the phonology of Quechua. However, other Peruvian linguists argued that a three-vowel system was more faithful to the phonology of Quechua.
A unified variety of the language is established, if necessary. Rather, standardization was required in order to create a uniform writing system to provide education to Quechua speakers in their native language.
As the years passed, Spaniards asserted the superiority of the Spanish language; as a result, Spanish gained prestige, taking over as a language of wider communication and the dominant language of Peru. Baldauf describe the sectors' six principal goals: First, he creates three sub-types of official functions: This norm has been accepted by many institutions in Peru.
Responses that reduce linguistic diversity include: The next stages in the language planning process involve the selection of a language or language variety for planning purposes.
The standardization process began when William Caxton introduced the printing press in England in Even with national intercultural bilingual education programs, teachers at local schools and members of the community often prefer using Spanish, destabilizing support for bilingual education.
Others argued that Ayacucho Quechua is a better option, as the language is more conservative and similar to the proto-language, while Qusqu-Qullaw has been influenced by contact with the Aymara language.
Status planning[ edit ] Status planning is the allocation or reallocation of a language or variety to functional domains within a society, thus affecting the status, or standing, of a language.
Modernization often occurs when a language undergoes a shift in status, such as when a country gains independence from a colonial power or when there is a change in the language education policy.Language planning 1.
Language Planning Introduction Some Basic issues A Variety of Situations Some other Voices 2. Four major types of language planning are status planning (about the social standing of a language), corpus planning (the structure of a language), language-in-education planning (learning), and prestige planning (image).
Language planning may occur at the macro-level (the state) or the micro-level (the community). See Examples and Observations below. What is language planning? Language planning is defined as. the development of policies or programs designed to direct or change language use, as through the establishment of an official language.
The preparation or implementation of a policy or proposal on language use; specifically the codifying and standardization of the language or languages to be used in a. Language planning (also known as language engineering) is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure, or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech community.
Language planning definition, the development of policies or programs designed to direct or change language use, as through the establishment of an official language, the standardization or modernization of a language, or the development or alteration of a writing system.